BEACH AND DUNE NETWORK
Welcome to the BEACH and DUNE NETWORK
Coastal dunes are one of the most threatened habitats in Europe. They offer habitats for various, often specialised animals and plants; and the unique landscape constitute an important service for human well-being. Human pressure, landscape use and the nature values result in conflicts of interests.
Aims of the Coastal network, to
We set out to achieve this by
Who is involved?
The Network includes, amongst others, site managers, national policy makers, students, researchers, ecologists, geomorphologists, hydrologists, foresters, coastal engineers, tourism managers.... . Events always involve a cross-section of interests to bridge the gap between disciplines and to encourage lively debate.
Members' distribution (2021)
There are some national and regional dune networks already formed in several countries.
Join the Network
To join the network, please send an email. Your data from the application will be entered in an internal (within the network), non-public accessible database. This allows us to connect interdisciplinary members if the need should arise. We welcome members from everywhere on the globe, as one of the goals of our network is to promote cooperation in Germany, Europe, and worldwide. If you are interested in European or international cooperation, you can get in touch with the European Dune Network.
Do you have hints or ideas for improving our network or holding events, or do you know people who could support the Beach and Dune Network? If so, please send us an email to Maike Isermann dunes-d (at) eucc-d.de.BACKtoSTART
- Day of the Dunes
- LIFE DUNIAS
- Restoration of mobile dunes: Westhoek nature reserve
- Blow-Out, Notch Development
- Sand Coast St. Peter-Ording, Germany: Protecting and restoring coastal habitats
- The State of Coastal Dunes of the Atlantic Biogeographical Region 2020
- LIFE - strengthening Europe's sand dunes
- Dynamic Dune Management in Practise
- Nitrogen Deposition in Dutch Dunes
- More and more information - 2021 back
Day of the Dunes -2022-
Antje Ehrenberg, Ecologisch bureau, educatie en tekstredactie, Haarlem
During the Day of the Dunes we ask for extra attention for the vulnerability of the dunes. The dunes are of great importance as a habitat for many special and rare plants and animals. And the dunes are a unique place where you can enjoy the peace and space.
Thus the Day of the Dunes will be in The Netherlands on 17th September 2022, https://www.duinbehoud.nl/dagvandeduinen/
LIFE DUNIAS -2022-
Reinhardt Strubbe, BE, NATUUR & BOS, BRUGGE
In May, an expert workshop in the framework of the LIFE DUNIAS project in Belgium (Dune restoration by tackling IAS) occurred to work-out a list of invasive species in coastal dunes. Impressions of the workshop.
Restoration of mobile dunes: Westhoek nature reserve -2022-
Reinhardt Strubbe, BE, NATUUR & BOS, BRUGGE
The - in this rapport mentioned works in the Sahara- are part of the Flemish and French Interreg project "Vedette" for the cross-border dune belt between Dunkerque and Westende. Together with Belgian and French partners, ANB wants to restore the Flemish Dunes and make it more attractive and varied for people and nature!
Further information: Provoost S., Arens B., Bovend’aerde L., Strubbe R. (2019) Interreg V VEDETTE - Studie 'best practices' omtrent het herstel van de dynamiek van stuifduinen, 105 p.
Blow-Out, Notch Development -2022-
A new article from the research group of Gerben Ruessink (Utrecht University), this time about the development of blowouts in the fore dune based on satellite observations. He had a student work on this a while ago, and his MSc thesis has been converted into an article. One of the sites they looked at is the Northwest Nature Core. Other sites include Skodbjerge in Denmark and Padre Island in Texas. The main result for the NNWN Core is Figure 7, where you see the development (in square meters) of the area “sand”. If you divide by 10,000, you have the number of acres. You see a rapid increase in 2012/2013, which is of course the construction of the notches. After that, the number of hectares of sand increases over the years, expansion of the lobes, but with large seasonal variations. These variations have to do with vegetation that "recaptures" parts of the area in the summer, but dies back in the winter. This means, among other things, that you should always use images from the same part of the growing season when interpreting aerial photos or satellite images.
Van Kuik, N., De Vries, J., Schwarz, C., Ruessink, G. 2022 Surface-area development of fortune trough blowouts and associated parabolic dunes quantified from time series of satellite imagery. Aeolian Research, 57, 100812 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeolia.2022.100812
Moreover there is another detailed study about dune blow-outs / notch development:
Nijenhuis, M. 2022 Evolutie van de kerf: Een onderzoek naar succes- en faalfactoren van kerven in de zeereep. pdf
Sand Coast St. Peter-Ording, Germany: Protecting and restoring coastal habitats -2021-
Sabine Gettner, DE, Naturschutzgesellschaft Schutzstation Wattenmeer e.V.
The sandbanks, salt marshes, dunes and the forest of St. Peter-Ording are unique natural assets and protect the hinterland from floods. Some are part of the Wadden Sea National Park and World Heritage Site, others of a Natura 2000 protected area. However, the natural dynamics of the older dune areas in St. Peter-Ording have been lost due to dyking, forestation and housing development. Introduced species are causing and sea-level rise will cause further distress to the coastal habitats. The aim of the joint project "Sand Coast St. Peter-Ording" is to improve the condition of the coastal landscape and to contribute to adaptation to sea-level rise. It is implemented together with local partners and with accompanying scientific research efforts. The corresponding nature conservation measures are to restore the dune habitats and produce a climate-adapted, species-rich dune forest. "Participatory actions" provide opportunities for locals, tourists and other interested people to support the conservation measures, e.g. by removing non-native, invasive plant species. The project is funded by the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation with funds from the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and by cooperation partners.
The project "Sand Coast St. Peter-Ording" is jointly implemented by five project partners: WWF Deutschland, Wattenmeerbüro (network coordinator); Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Institut für Geowissenschaften, AG Küstengeologie und Sedimentologie; Deich- und Hauptsielverband Eiderstedt; Naturschutzgesellschaft Schutzstation Wattenmeer e .V.;Technische Universität Braunschweig, Leichtweiß-Institut für Wasserbau. Further Information (in German):
The State of Coastal Dunes of the Atlantic Biogeographical Region -2020-
John Houston, GB, houstonjohn37(at)gmail.com
Note: This summary is derived from the Article 17 data published by the European Environment Agency in 2020. The information was correct at the time of writing in October 2020 but subsequent edits may have changed some information and web links may have changed.
State of nature in the EU 2020
The European Environment Agency published the report State of nature in the EU on 19th October 2020. The report is an analysis of the data provided by Member States reporting under the nature directives 2013-2018. For Habitats Directive habitats and species the detailed information by member state and biogeographical region is published in a series of dashboards and the Article 17 web-tool. These can be used to check the current status and trends of habitats and species by Member State, by biogeographic region, by habitat type or species and to compare this information with reports from 2001-2006 and 2007-2012. Links in the Article 17 web-tool give access to Member State reports reported by biogeographical region.
Across all habitat groups, dunes (21 coastal and inland habitat types), along with bogs, mires and fens, have the highest percentage (>50%) of bad assessments and a low number of good assessments. These ‘dune habitats’ include the 10 habitats making up the Habitats Directive sub-group Sea dunes of the Atlantic, North Sea and Baltic coast, 7 habitats in Sea dunes of the Mediterranean coast and 4 habitats in Inland dunes, old and decalcified.
© EEA 2020
According to Member States assessments the total area of all Annex I dune habitats (coastal and inland) is 9,200 km2, the smallest area of any habitat group. Compare this, for example, to the reported 406,000 km2 of coastal habitats. As a consequence any proposed restoration targets for coastal dunes are relatively small in the big picture. Working together, however, e.g. through the Natura 2000 Biogeographical Process, will help to ensure that habitat restoration and habitat creation opportunities are promoted.
Coastal dunes in the Atlantic biogeographical region
This note is derived from the information from the Article 17 reports for the Member States in the Atlantic Biogeographical Region (i.e. Denmark, Germany, The Netherlands, Belgium, France, Spain, Portugal, UK and Ireland). Only The Netherlands, Belgium, UK and Ireland lie wholly within the Atlantic region. The EEA State of nature report 2020 includes data for the UK which was still a member of the EU in the reporting period. The UK, however, will no longer take part in future Article 17 reporting, although information on habitat and species status will continue to be monitored. This, therefore, will be the last EEA report which presents information from the nine countries in the Atlantic biogeographical region.
The Atlantic biogeographical region holds the largest area of coastal dune habitat in EU-28 (43%) but also has the lowest percentage of habitat in good condition (28%).
The main set of Habitats Directive Annex I coastal dune habitats of the Atlantic biogeographical region are in the sub-group of the Interpretation Manual of EU Habitats ‘Sea Dunes of the Atlantic, North Sea and Baltic coast’, i.e:
2110 Embryonic shifting dunes
2120 Shifting dunes along the shoreline with Ammophila arenaria (white dunes)
2130* Fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation (grey dunes)
2140* Decalcified fixed dunes with Empetrum nigrum
2150* Atlantic decalcified fixed dunes (Calluno-Ulicetea)
2160 Dunes with Hippophae rhamnoides
2170 Dunes with Salix repens ssp. argentea (Salicion arenariae)
2180 Wooded dunes of the Atlantic, Continental and Boreal Region
2190 Humid dune slacks
21A0 Machairs (* in Ireland)
* Signifies that the habitat is a priority habitat
The overall distribution and condition of these habitats in Atlantic biogeographical region (i.e. the total for nine Member States) is:
|Habitat||Habitat code||Area (ha)||Overall assessment|
|Embryonic shifting dunes||2110||5,456||U1 poor|
|Shifting dunes along the shoreline with Ammophila arenaria (white dunes)||2120||28,232||U1 poor|
|Fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation (grey dunes)||2130*||117,321||U2 bad|
|Decalcified fixed dunes with Empetrum nigrum||2140*||23,377||U1 poor|
|Atlantic decalcified fixed dunes (Calluno-Ulicetea)||2150*||2,271||U2 bad|
|Dunes with Hippophae rhamnoides||2160||14,439||FV good|
|Dunes with Salix repens ssp. argentea (Salicion arenariae)||2170||4,136||U1 poor|
|Wooded dunes of the Atlantic, Continental and Boreal Region||2180||129,807||U1 poor|
|Humid dune slacks||2190||14,751||U2 bad|
|Machairs (* in Ireland)||21A0||14,768||U1 poor|
|Total for Atlantic region||354,558|
FV= Favourable; U1 = Unfavourable-inadequate; U2 = unfavourable-bad
The entire report with detailed analysis about the Atlantic dunes you will find HERE.
 The reports are national reports and do not give information by country or region. For example reports from England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are not on the EEA dashboards but can be found at https://jncc.gov.uk/our-work/article-17-habitats-directive-report-2019-habitats/
LIFE - Strengthening Europe's sand dunes-2021-
Sand dunes are an important habitat for rare plants and wildlife. They also protect against erosion, flooding and storm damage. Learn how our LIFE projects are working to safeguard our dunes. detailed information. LIFE Nature publication highlights the issues threatening Europe’s coastal habitats and how the LIFE program has addressed them. Download LIFE and Coastal Habitats pdf
LIFE-Projects with focus on dunes...
DUNIAS: Belgium 2021-2026, Project-Website, EU-LIFE-description
The overall goal of the LIFE DUNIAS project is to fight IAS in the Belgian coastal zone in a structured and concerted way. The project’s specific objectives are to: Eradicate invasive alien plant species in all Flemish coastal dunes; Improve the conservation status of the target habitats by removing the pressure from IAS; Prevent the arrival of new IAS or return of eradicated IAS; Raise awareness with various target groups of the importance to take measures against IAS; Exchange knowledge on IAS distribution and best practices for combating IAS; and Improve an existing early warning system and stimulate volunteers to record IAS observations.
The aim of the project is to restore important coastal and archipelagic habitats, such as sun-lihgt environments, coastal meadows, herb-rich forests and wooded pastures. The CoastNetLIFE Project aims to improve the conservation status of Natura2000 sites along the Baltic coastal zone of Finland and Estonia. The aim is to create a functional network of coastal habitats. The main focus is on open and semi-open environments that are typical of the coastal area. The project restores environments that are now in poor condition and supplement the network with new areas.
Dynamic Dunescapes is a project restoring sand dunes across England and Wales for the benefit of people, communities and threatened dune wildlife. This project will restore nine key dune areas, from Cornwall to Cumbria. These key areas include 34 individual dune systems and cover up to 7,000 hectares. Natural England, Plantlife, National Trust, Natural Resources Wales, Wildlife Trusts, Cornwall Wildlife Trust, Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust and Cumbria Wildlife Trust are working in partnership to deliver this ambitious project. Running until 2023, this project will: restore sand dunes by carrying out pioneering conservation actions; raise awareness that healthy dunes need moving sand; encourage more people to explore, enjoy, and help protect the dunes through a program of innovative public engagement and citizen science events and activities; develop skills to manage dunes better, both now and in the future.
A film about the NoFence GPS collars that we’ve been trialling with our grazing cattle, which might be a good fit. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mylU6JHDLYg
Email: email@example.com for contact details of the team or to sign up for their email newsletter.
REDCOHA: Denmark 2013-2019, Project-Website, EU-LIFE-description
The focus of the layman's report 2019 is fighting Rosa rugosa in dunes and heathland, but also natural hydrology and establishment of bird islands are discussed.
Amsterdam Dunes: The Netherlands 2012-2016, Project-Website, EU-LIFE-description
MAESTRALE: Italy 2011-2017 Project-Website, EU-LIFE-description
Dutch Dune Revival: The Netherlands 2010-2016, Project-Website, EU-LIFE-description
Conference proceedings on Dynamic Dunes, the rejuvenation of dynamic dunes and restoration of dune habitats: Further information
More information about finished projects related to dunes, see: DUNES-LIFE
Dynamic Dune Management in Practise-2021-
Luc Geelen, Waternet, NL
Netherlands Center for Coastal Research (a cooperation of the coastal knowledge institutes) organized a theme in September. The NCK theme day 'Dynamic dune management in practice' shared and discussed the latest insights into dynamic dune management from recent projects such as Spanjaards Duin, Hondsbossche Duinen and Prins Hendrik Zanddijk. One of the biggest challenges in these projects is the balance between allowing dynamics for nature and flood risk management functions. Because these projects have created dune areas from scratch, they require an adaptive approach. The value of these types of projects for coastal research in general and the Dutch coastal landscape or specifically N2000 dune nature in particular was discussed. The location and the field visit zoomed in on the development of Spanjaards Duin! In the winter of late 2008 - early 2009 Spanjaards Duin was constructed on the coastal stretch near 's Gravezande (ZH) as a compensation for Port development in Rotterdam Maasvlakte 2. For the first time, a dune area was created with sea nourishment sand that was to provide space for high-quality gray dune and dune valleys. vegetation within a predetermined time frame of 25 years. The legal compensation project for Maasvlakte 2, in other words, whereby dune values that would be lost in Voorne had to be compensated in development of Spanjaards Duin: H2190 and H2130 in specifically imposed hectares, verifiable to be achieved in 2032!
There is therefore policy/administrative pressure from the Port Authority who demonstrably want to achieve the nature compensation objective based on their specific interests. There is therefore quite a bit of monitoring to assess progress towards goals. Spanjaards Duin's project and management was summarized as dynamic if possible and adaptive if necessary
Adaptive management appeared to be necessary to achieve a suitable starting situation for moist dune valley vegetation (H2190).
- hydrology is not sufficiently well predicted in advance (also a problem with the sand engine) and the large amount of shells in the intended valley caused “dessert pavement”, which blocked the drift to groundwater level. : so excavators have been working towards ground level.
- because H2190 and H2130 are a strict target, blow-through holes in the new foredune were closed to prevent the valley from becoming overblown with sand.
- vegetation development has been stimulated with the input of hay from locations with “target habitat” ie the Meijendel and Kennemerstrand valleys. In places where this clipping was introduced, you clearly saw accelerated succession with more target species present
- increase in sea buckthorn is going very fast and Zuid Hollands Landschap is pulling out sea buckthorn with volunteers. Follow-up management may have to intensify in the coming years (nitrogen input is high there!)
Hay (with seed) has also been introduced for acceleration H2130 and also a reduction in dynamics (H2120!)
It was an interesting discussion about the feasibility of nature goals with the strictness of the habitat objectives in relation to the desired dynamics in the context of coastal management.
Dunescapes Sand Dune Manager's Handbook-2021-
The Dynamic Dunescapes partners have developed a comprehensive handbook discussing the wide range of dune management options available to address the issues faced by coastal sand dune systems, including overstabilisation and invasive species. Management interventions detailed include notches, grazing, turf-stripping and scrub clearance. This handbook is designed to be a useful, in-depth resource for sand dune site managers, and aims to keep our management techniques up to date for the needs of dune conservation in a variety of situations.
Jones, L., Rooney, P., Rhymes. J. and Dynamic Dunescapes partners (2021). The Sand Dune Managers Handbook. Version 1, June 2021. Produced for the Dynamic Dunescapes (DuneLIFE) project: LIFE17 NAT/UK/000570; HG-16-086436
More and more Information 2021 Back
NITROGEN DEPOSITION in DUTCH DUNES (NL) DUNEA has been fighting the effects of nitrogen deposition in the areas managed for over 30 years. We do this with nature restoration projects and nitrogen-related management activities, such as: turf cutting, mowing and grazing. This has cost about 4 million euros in the past 10 years. The research into the effects of grazing did not prove that too much measures were taken. That is why we have switched to summer and winter grazing, for example. So you cannot 'manage away' the effects of nitrogen indefinitely. Reducing emissions is the only sustainable path to natural recovery. Further information (in Dutch)
COAST for KIDS (ES) A series of educational videos about the coast, for children, and also adults! Led by Irene Delgado-Fernandez, coastal geomorphologist, this series has resulted in a wonderful contribution to environmental education on the coast. ‘Coasts for Kids is a collaborative experience between children and their parents, coastal scientists, community artists, teachers, animators and coastal managers. The series is aimed at kids aged 6 and over. It includes important concepts in coastal processes and coastal evolution in Episodes 1, 2 and 3, followed up by analyses of human impacts in Episode 4 and management actions in Episode 5. The series (trailer + 5 episodes) will be ready for free download shortly, and this will be communicated in our Youtube Channel (https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLXgQva8tPStrhjCl3AiaayBAwMCh2x-xL) and via twitter/online networks (@IreneDelgadoFe2). Public videos available at (and ready to share). Play-list -- Trailer -- Episode 1 -- Episode 2 -- Episode 3 -- Episode 4 -- Episode 5 --
MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT in FRANCE (FR) Jean Favennec published about the management strategy of the coastal strip in France. This manuscript traces the development of management strategies since the 1960s (in French).
10 years of SAND MOTOR (NL) In 2011 started a pilot project: the Sand Motor. An artificial sandbank, a significant boost for innovative coastline maintenance and a perfect example of Building with Nature. Thanks to the influence of the wind and the sea currents, the Sand Motor has now grown into a beautiful nature reserve and recreational area. Its development is being closely followed and is receiving a great deal of international attention. Ten years of research and special collaborations have resulted in an innovative way to maintain the coastal area, new possibilities for the surroundings and a wealth of knowledge. A unique connection between nature, science and society. Further information
ENDURE - Ensuring Dune Resilience Against Climate Change an INTERREG Two Seas project 2014-2020 testing ways to make our sand dunes more resilient. The project will look at establishing sand dunes as adaptive, living sea defences. Many traditional concrete sea defences are old and failing and can be expensive or challenging to maintain. Natural ecosystems can provide better, more resilient protection: sand dunes naturally migrate, flex and evolve to create a self-replenishing barrier to the sea. However, this adaptive ability is often compromised by poor and/or reactive management that deals with the aftermath of erosion or flooding events, rather than preventing these events from happening in the first place. Further information
SAND DUNES, MOBILITY, and CULTURAL HERITAGE Research about sand dunes, their mobility (past, present, and future), and impacts on cultural heritage from the Atlantic coast of South West France, to the Low Countries, around the UK and the island of Ireland.The research theme centred on the idea that dune landscapes are rich in cultural heritage, yet their inherent dynamism and potentially increased future mobility, driven by climate change, may present new challenges for dune managers and dune stakeholders - challenges that need to be better understood. In addition to cataloguing the cultural heritage interests, also researched is the topic of physical dune mobility based on historic, contemporary, and projected future dune behaviour. To this end offering the following recommendations: 1. Recognise that cultural heritage features associated with sand dunes are of significant value in providing a tangible way to better understand shoreline change and engage with stakeholders. 2. Pursue a proactive programme of monitoring coastal change on sand dune sites in partnership with relevant agencies and research establishments with a specific emphasis on historic environment interests, adopting the SCAPE model from Scotland, and as appropriate linking to region and country Coastal Monitoring Observatories. 3. Put in place a more fleet-of-foot approach to achieving preservation by record that can be rapidly mobilised by having in place ‘call-out contracts’ to enable additional external expert help to be deployed in response to a storm event. 4. Review Trust sand dune locations to determine where, through acquisition or partnership working, it is possible to provide accommodation space for dune evolution inland or along the shoreline. 5. Contribute to the Dynamic Dunescapes project workstream ‘Sand dune management handbook’ to develop contemporary guidance for site managers that includes geomorphological, historic, and natural environment interests, climate change impacts and access issues. 6. Maintain and/or establish broad ranging sand dune management research partnerships with Universities and other research bodies for key Trust sand dune locations. The entire report: Dyke,P. (2020) Sand dunes, mobility and cultural heritage. National Trust. 125 pp - In memorian to Phil Dyke -
DEFINITION of FAVOURABLE CONSERVATION STATUS for COASTAL SAND DUNES (GB) This document sets out Natural England’s view on Favourable Conservation Status (FCS) for coastal sand dunes in England. FCS is defined in terms of three parameters: natural range and distribution, area, and structure and function attributes.
Section 2 provides the summary definition of FCS. Section 3 covers contextual information, Section 4 the metrics used and Section 5 describes the evidence considered when defining FCS for each of the three parameters. Section 6 sets out the conclusions on favourable values for each of the three parameters. Annex 3 lists the references.
This document does not include any action planning, or describe actions, to achieve or maintain FCS. These will be presented separately, for example within strategy documents. The guidance document Defining Favourable Conservation Status in England describes the Natural England approach to defining FCS. Report as pdf download
SUPPORT of GREEN BEACH (NL) From 2021 there will no longer be cleaning machines on a two-kilometer stretch of beach near Ouddorp. Any seaweed that remains is good for the birds that nest on the beach. The stretch of beach between the lighthouse and De Vrijheid is the first official green beach of Goeree-Overflakkee. Rubbish will be removed manually by a group of volunteers. The seaweed just remains, allowing all kinds of small life to grow. The beach had become a blank sandbox in recent years, all life was gone. Machines clean the beach. As a result, birds, such as the ringed plover that breeds on the Ouddorp beach, cannot find food. Agreements have been made with the municipality to better protect nature. Not only does cleaning no longer take place, but it has also been determined that cars (from the water board, municipality, ...) will all run on one track from now on. Signs will be placed to explain to visitors why a green beach is important and why dogs, for example, are not allowed to run loose during the breeding season.
DRIFT-LINES, GREEN BEACHES (GB) Turning the Plastic Tide (TTPT) project - which is funded by the EMFF - responsible for beach cleans in Aberdeen and Aberdeenshire. EGCP Ltd is a not-for-profit limited company representing individuals and organisations who have an interest in the well-being of the local coast between Kinnaird Head, Fraserburgh and the mouth of the River North Esk, by St Cyrus. Further information.
COASTAL CHANGE and GOLF (GB) The ‘Coastal Change and Golf Links Research Project’ is established to identify current levels of coastal management understanding and engagement across links and cliff top golf courses. Further Information
LITTORAL 2017 Conference 'Change, Naturalness and People' Proceedings Further Information
RESTORING GREY DUNES by REACTIVATING SMALL-SCALE DYNAMICS (NL) In the context of Natura 2000, rare species and vegetation types in the Netherlands are protected in a European perspective. This report focuses on the H2130 Grey dunes Habitat type, for which the Netherlands has great responsibility within the EU. REPORT Further information on this issue (in Dutch) on the website www.natuurkennis.nl, e.g. Background report
SALT SPRAY DISTRIBUTION: a REVIEW Jianhui Du & Patrick Hesp published a review article on Salt Spray Distribution and Its Impact on Vegetation Zonation on Coastal Dunes. Salt spray is, after sand deposition, often considered the second dominant factor contributing to vegetation zonation in coastal dunes. Salt Spray mainly originates from the bursting of bubbles in breaking waves, is carried by wind, intercepted by coastal dunes and plants, and redistributed in the sand/soil after precipitation. In this paper, the literature on salt spray distribution and impact on dune plants are reviewed. SEE: Estuaries and Coasts
FOREDUNES: GEOMORPHOLOGY related to MANAGEMENT In their article “Geomorphologic characteristics and evolution of managed dunes on the South West Coast of France” Victor Bossard and Alexandre Nicolae Lerma describe a geomorphologic classification of foredunes along the Aquitaine coast and analyze relations between dune management actions and marine and aeolian driven processes. Summing up management strategies conducted on the Aquitaine coast, three scenarios are generally considered to face the consequences of severe marine erosion. In the light of chronic erosion and relatively low sediment availably dynamics, these scenarios integrate into a stable to receding coast. With further sea level rise over the next decades probably requires extensive new management strategies. And authors promote so-called “controlled dynamic strategy” or guided remobilisation in order to adapt these environments to actual and future pressures. SEE: Geomorphology
RESTORATION of COASTAL DUNES (NL) Coastal sand dunes are home to stunning, species-rich ecosystems and provide numerous services to mankind, such as storm protection, opportunities for tourism and production of drinking water. Most coastal sand dunes across Northwest Europe currently experience denser vegetation cover and geomorphological stabilisation, resulting in a rapid decline in biodiversity and loss of important services. Nature managers are therefore increasingly implementing pragmatic nature-based solutions to restore static dunes into dynamic ecosystems. Within the Aeolus meets Poseidon project (2014-2019), Utrecht University pioneered into landscape-scale dune restoration research with drinking water companies, water authorities and other Dutch public and private partners. Further information
DUNE MANAGEMENT to SUPPORT NATURAL DYNAMIC A discussion about the publication Delgado-Fernandez et al.(2019) "Is 're-mobilisation' nature restoration or nature destruction?" Journal of Coastal Conservation 23: 1093-1103 Comments are available:
Creer, Ratcliffe, Rees, Thomas, Smith (2020) Journal of Coastal Conservation 24 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-020-00745-9.
Pye & Blott (2020) Journal of Coastal Conservation 24 https://rdcu.be/b1yYf
Arens et al. (2020) Journal of Coastal Conservation 24 https://rdcu.be/b1Z40
The OBN Research project "Restoring Rabbit populations in coastal dunes" is halfway through. Some first results are published in a newsletter (OBN, 2019). Restocking is a commonly used practice in wildlife management, and particularly for European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in France, Portugal and Spain. Many populations are declining, primarily because of habitat destruction and both myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease.
Now that the rabbit is not doing well in many coastal dune areas, there are proposals to move rabbits from populations with good density. When the rabbits have completely disappeared, reintroduction may be an option. But improving existing populations with low density earlier may be a better strategy. There are some small experiments in the Netherlands with local reintroduction or addition of rabbits. In addition to a discussion of Dutch projects the OBN project will also deal with a literature study. Experience from management by dune farmers in the 17th century, and the experiences in France and Spain are gathered.
Rabbit breeding sites in the Netherlands
It is instructive to see how the dune farmers (“Duinmeiers”) in former days promoted rabbit populations. In the Netherlands in the 14th century already a system was created in the dunes of open warren "warandes" (breeding and hunting grounds), for commercial keeping of wild rabbits for their meat and fur. Information about their activities we owe Prof. Swaen for the translation of one of the oldest known manuscripts in the Dutch language, dealing with hunting and falconry from ± 1635. In sparsely populated areas of the dune warren the duinmeier made artificial caves with a special drill. He fed the rabbits in the winter with hay, oats and bran or willow prunings. The “Duinmeier” fought predators and birds of prey; which led even to the eradication of the fox in the Dutch dunes.
Experience from France and Spain
In France and Spain, many rabbits have been released or placed for hunting in the past, an estimated thousands per year. Nowadays also rabbits are managed for the conservation of native predators. We see the same management here as with the Dutch duinmeiers: sufficient food, making artificial nests and protection against predators. In Spain people make great efforts to preserve the rabbit as a prey animal for rare predators such as the Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus) and the Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti). Improving the habitat turned out to be one positive effect on the rabbit population. In this case was the reduction by burning low shrubs seemed to be effective. Various factors are studied in a large experiment: the season in which the introduction is made, the numbers that are added and the quality of the release area (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor habitat). Success was measured by survival, the extent to which the rabbits remained in the area and the expected population growth. The highest success was achieved with a low number of released rabbits (40 on 15 ha)
in a nutrient-rich habitat. Placing in the breeding season is unfavorable, because there are many conflicts about mating and nesting during this period, where animals chase or injure each other. But because of considerable lack of knowledge most of current rabbit management programs should be revised to optimize the use of
available resources in the attainment of an effective rabbit density increase.
Letty (2003) has done experiments in France with additions of rabbits. He found a high mortality in the first two weeks and strong dispersion (withdrawal) of the new rabbits. In a population that the researchers followed day by day in the first two days after release 41-51% of rabbits died from predation or stress. And also later predation led to a lower survival than in a population protected against predators. The rabbits settled up to 225 meters from the artificial nests in which they were released. Moreover, the surviving rabbits that were introduces did not take fully part in reproduction.
In summary preliminary results show:
- Additional placement requires a lot of effort and is not always successful.
- A prerequisite for success is the suitability of the habitat.
- Protection against predators for a longer period is necessary.
OBN will provide a more detailed overview in their final report giving the methods and techniques used.
Swaen, A.E.H.(red), 1948. Jacht-Bedryff. Brill, Leiden,
Angulo, E., Calvete, C., Cabezas, S. &. Villafuerte, R. 2004: Scrub management and rabbit translocations at Doñana National Park: long and short-term effectiveness. 2nd world lagomorph conference.
Letty, J., Aubineau, J., Marchandeau, S. & Clobert, J. 2003: Effect of translocation on survival in wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). - Mammalian Biology 68: 250-255.
OBN, 2019. NEWSLETTER Recovery rabbit populations in the coastal dunes– oktober 2019 (In Dutch)
Calluna heath die-back on the island Hiddensee (DE) Project include the study of the annual rings of Calluna vulgaris from two heathlands of different age, with the aim to find out whether plants died after the 2018 drought or before, and whether the die-back is related to their age and/or the growth of previous years. In addition, an experiment with rain-out shelters have been built to simulate drought, and vegetation (mainly heather) has been clipped to simulate browsing. Further information.
DUNES - Sea, Sand and People (PT) The project is an Environmental History project focused in the relation between people and coastal dunes.The team combines geologists, historians, geographers and biologists. Covering the last three centuries and using a transdisciplinary approach, our team will travel across borders and centuries to find out who were the pivotal actors that changed the course of history of coastal dunes. Further Information: http://dunes.letras.ulisboa.pt/en/project/
REDUCTION of NITROGEN INPUT by PRECIPITATION - an enthusiastic goal (NL) The Netherlands will allocate five billion euros 2020-2030 to tackle nitrogen precipitation. The Duinbehoud Foundation asks to invest primarily in the proper management of nature restoration projects and in the construction of buffers around the nature reserves. Originally, the Dutch dune area is nutrient-poor. For centuries, flora and fauna have established their survival strategies for this. Now nitrogen is seriously disrupting the ecosystem. In the Dutch dune areas, this is reflected in an excessive vegetation with shrubs and grasses. As a result, dunes hardly drift and the original species-rich vegetation, birds and insects disappear. Birds find less and less food in overgrown places in the dunes. Further information (in Dutch)
DUNE ROADMAP - ACTIONPLAN The action plan concerning knowledge exchange and networking during the period 2016-2020. The roadmap focus on the sustainable conservation and restoration of important habitats in dunes of the atlantic region. The roadmap will be reworked. Further information
Natterjack Toads on the island Sylt (DE) Natterjack Toads are threatened on the island of Sylt and their population declines. On the entire island management measure started, supporting in the short as well as in the long term the environmental conditions to maintain the Natterjack population. Further information (in German)
Andriolo U, Gonçalves G, Bessa F, Sobral P (2021) Spatial and size distribution of macro-litter on coastal dunes from drone images: A case study on the Atlantic coast. Marine Pollution Bulletin 169: 112490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112490
Andriolo U, Gonçalves G (2022) Is coastal erosion a source of marine litter pollution? Evidence of coastal dunes being a reservoir of plastics. Marine Pollution Bulletin 174: 113307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.113307
Bauer B, Hesp P, Smyth T, Walker I, Davidson‐Arnott R, Pickart A, Grilliot M, Rader A (2022) Air flow and sediment transport dynamics on a foredune with contrasting vegetation cover. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms: https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.5425
Brus, D. J., Slim, P. A., Heidema, A. H., & Van Dobben, H. F. (2014). Trend monitoring of the areal extent of habitats in a subsiding coastal area by spatial probability sampling. Ecological indicators, 45, 313-319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.04.007
Castillo JM, Mancilla-Leytón JM, Martins-Noguerol R, Moreira X, Moreno-Pérez AJ, Muñoz-Vallés S, Pedroche JJ, Figueroa ME, García-González A, Salas JJ (2022) Interactive effects between salinity and nutrient deficiency on biomass production and bio-active compounds accumulation in the halophyte Crithmum maritimum. Scientia Horticulturae 301: 111136
Castillo-Infante FR, Mendoza-González G, Rioja-Nieto R, Gallego-Fernández JB. 2021. Range Shifts in the Worldwide Expansion of Oenothera drummondii subsp. drummondii, a Plant Species of Coastal Dunes. Diversity 2021, 13, 603. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13110603
Cerrato, M., Ribas-Serra, A., Cortés-Fernández, I. et al. 2022, Effect of seawater salinity stress on Sporobolus pungens (Schreb.) Kunth, a halophytic grass of the mediterranean embryonic dunes. Plant Growth Regul https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-022-00846-5
Cortés-Fernández I, Cerrato MD, Ribas-Serra A, Gil L (2022) Salinity effects on the germination and reproduction of Eryngium maritimum L. (Apiaceae). Flora 291: 152062. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2022.152062
Decuyper, M., Van Den Dool, R., Slim, P. A., Kuiters, A. T., Jansen, J. M., & Sass-Klaassen, U. (2020). Population dynamics of Hippophae rhamnoides shrub in response of sea-level rise and insect outbreaks. PloS one, 15(5), e0233011. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0233011
De Jong, B., Keijsers, J. G., Riksen, M. J., Krol, J., & Slim, P. A. (2014). Soft engineering vs. a dynamic approach in coastal dune management: A case study on the north sea barrier island of ameland, the netherlands. Journal of Coastal Research, 30(4), 670-684. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Michel-Riksen/publication/264001052_Soft_Engineering_vs_a_Dynamic_Approach_in_Coastal_Dune_Management_A_Case_Study_on_the_North_Sea_Barrier_Island_of_Ameland_The_Netherlands/links/56543d6008ae4988a7b00f7c/Soft-Engineering-vs-a-Dynamic-Approach-in-Coastal-Dune-Management-A-Case-Study-on-the-North-Sea-Barrier-Island-of-Ameland-The-Netherlands.pdf
Della Bella A (2022) Assessment of coastal dune restoration viability in the Veneto Region (Northeastern Italy).
Del Vecchio, S., Sharma, S. K., Pavan, M., Acosta, A. T. R., Bacchetta, G., De Bello, F., Isermann, M., Michalet, R., Buffa, G. (2022). Within-species variation of seed traits of dune engineering species across a European climatic gradient. Frontiers in Plant Science, 13. doi 10.3389/fpls.2022.978205
Fontan-Bouzas A, Andriolo U, Silva P, Batista P (2022) Wave impact analysis on a beach-dune system to support coastal management and nourishment works: the showcase of Mira, Portugal. Frontiers in Marine Science 9: 861569, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2022.861569
Gallego-Fernández JB, García-Franco JG 2021. Self-compatibility and reproductive success of Oenothera drummondii subsp. drummondii: Is it similar between native and non-native populations? Diversity 13, 431. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13090431
Gallego-Fernández JB, García-Franco JG. 2021. Floral traits variation in Oenothera drummondii subsp. drummondii across a wide latitudinal range of native and non-native populations. Flora 280: 151851. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2021.151851
Gallego-Fernández JB, Martínez ML, García-Franco JG, Zunzunegui M. 2021. Multiple seed dispersal modes of an invasive plant species on coastal dunes. Biological Invasions 23:111-127. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-020-02359-6
Gao P, Dong J, Wang S, Zhang W, Yang T, Zhang J, Che D (2022) Cool-Warm Temperature Stratification and Simulated Bird Digestion Optimize Removal of Dormancy in Rosa rugosa Seeds. Frontiers in plant science 12: 808206
Grechushkina N. A., Chuvashov A. V., Golub V. B. 2022. Syntaxonomy of psammophytic communities of the Black and Azov Sea coasts (Krasnodar Territory). Rastitel’nost’ Rossii. 43, 23–40. https://doi.org/10.31111/vegrus/2022.43.23
Haveman, R. (2022). Myosurus minimus in Betuwse boomkwekerijen - een plantensociologische uitweiding. – Stratiotes 58: 32-51. pdf
Hesp PA, Hernández-Calvento L, Hernández-Cordero AI, Gallego-Fernández JB, García Romero L, Miot da Silva G, Ruz MH. 2021. Nebkha development and sediment supply. Science of the Total Environment 773: 144815. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144815
Hesp PA, Hernández-Calvento L, Gallego-Fernández JB, Hernández-Cordero AI, Miot da Silva G, Ruz MH. 2021. Nebkha or Not? -Climate Control on Foredune Mode. Journal of Arid Environments 187:104444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2021.104444
Jurkus E, Povilanskas R, Taminskas J (2022) Current trends and issues in research on biodiversity conservation and tourism sustainability. Sustainability 14: 3342
Kathmann H, van Natijne A, Lindenbergh R (2022) PROBABILISTIC VEGETATION TRANSITIONS IN DUNES BY COMBINING SPECTRAL AND LIDAR DATA. The International Archives Of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences 43: 1033-1040
Kunttu, P. & Kunttu, S.-M. 2021, The invasive alien Rosa rugosa in Archipelago Sea National Park, southwestern Finland. Lutukka 37: 14-23. (In Finnish with English summary). https://www.luomus.fi/sites/default/files/files/lutu_2021_1_kunttu_kunttu.pdf
Kutbay G, Türmen B 2022 Ellenberg ecological indicator values, tolerance values, species niche models for soil nutrient availability, salinity, and pH in coastal dune vegetation along a landward gradient (Euxine, Turkey). Turkish Journal of Botany 46. doi:10.55730/bot-2201-55
Lafon, P., Fouler, A., Dufay, J., Hardy, F. 2022, Contribution à la connaissance phytosociologique de la xérosère des dunes littorales non boisées d'Aquitaine (France). 94. 1-23. 10.34971/ajyq-qy86.
Laime, B., Tjarve, D., Znotitina, V., Laukaleja, Z. 2022, Distribution and Ecology of Neophyte Lactuca Tatarica Population on the East Baltic Sea Coast in Latvia" Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B. Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences 76, 2, 267-277. https://doi.org/10.2478/prolas-2022-0040
Langkilde-Lauesen C, Strange N, Wilson KA (2022) Local scale prioritization of cost-efficient protection within the National Park Thy. Journal for Nature Conservation 68: 126218. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2022.126218
Mooser A, Anfuso G, Stanchev H, Stancheva M, Williams AT, Aucelli PP (2022) Most Attractive Scenic Sites of the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast: Characterization and Sensitivity to Natural and Human Factors. Land 11: 70
Pinna, M.S., Cogoni , D., Bacchetta, G. et al. (2022) Assessing the potential for restoring Mediterranean coastal dunes under pressure from tourism. J Coast Conserv 26, 15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-022-00860-9
Post V, Zhou T, Neukum C, Koeniger P, Houben G, Lamparter A, Šimůnek J (2022) Estimation of groundwater recharge rates using soil-water isotope profiles: a case study of two contrasting dune types on Langeoog Island, Germany. Hydrogeology Journal: 1-16
Provoost S, Van Gompel W, Vercruysse E (2022) 15 years of beach flora monitoring along the Belgian coast. Book of Abstracts.
Ruessink G, Sterk G, Smit Y, De Winter W, Hage P, Donker JJ, Arens SM (2022) Predicting monthly to multi‐annual foredune growth at a narrow beach. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms:
Sanromualdo-Collado A, Gallego-Fernández JB, Hesp PA, Martínez ML, O’Keeffe N, Ferrer-Valero N, Hernández-Calvento L. 2022. Environmental variables affecting an arid coastal nebkha. Science of Total Environment 815:152868. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152868
Sanromualdo-Collado A, Hernández-Cordero AI, Viera-Pérez M, Gallego-Fernández JB, Hernández-Calvento L. 2021. Coastal Dune Restoration in El Inglés Beach (Gran Canaria, Spain): a Trial Study.Revista de Estudios Andaluces 41: 187-204. https://dx.doi.org/10.12795/rea.2021.i41.10
Šimanauskienė R, Linkevičienė R, Povilanskas R, Satkūnas J, Veteikis D, Baubinienė A, Taminskas J (2022) Curonian Spit Coastal Dunes Landscape: Climate Driven Change Calls for the Management Optimization. Land 11: 877
Slim, P. A., Janssen, J. A. M., & Kuiters, A. T. (2019). Het Oerdswater op Ameland; 78 jaar na Braun-Blanquet revisited. Stratiotes, 54, 42-52. https://natuurtijdschriften.nl/pub/1011345/STRAT2019054001004.pdf
Slim, P. A., & Metzing, D. (2019). Crassula tillaea (Crassulaceae) auf Norderney: Ausbreitung und Habitate einer (noch) seltenen Art an der Nordseeküste. DROSERA: Naturkundliche Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland, 1, 25-31. https://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/fulltext/495721
Smyth TAG, Wilson R, Rooney P, Yates KL (2022) Extent, accuracy and repeatability of bare sand and vegetation cover in dunes mapped from aerial imagery is highly variable. Aeolian Research 56: 100799. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeolia.2022.100799
Stancheva M, Stanchev H, Zaucha J, Ramieri E, Roberts T (2022) Supporting multi-use of the sea with maritime spatial planning. The case of a multi-use opportunity development-Bulgaria, Black Sea. Marine Policy 136: 104927
2022, Caspian remnant coastal dunes: how do natural and anthropogenic factors impact on plant diversity and vegetation?, Plant Biosystems. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-021-00809-4
Tkachenko K, Kapelian A (2022) The History of the Introduction of Species of the Genus Rosa to St. Petersburg, Russia. In. Springer International Publishing, Cham, 581-588 pp.
Van der Loop JMM, van de Loo M, de Vries W, van Veenhuisen LS, van Kleef HH, Leuven RSEW (2022) Lessons learnt from large-scale eradication of Australian swamp stonecrop Crassula helmsii in a protected Natura 2000 site. Management of Biological Invasions 13(1): 101–117. https://doi.org/10.3391/mbi.2022.13.1.06
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Zunzunegui M, Esquivias MP, Gallego-Fernández JB (2022) Spatial and seasonal patterns of water use in Mediterranean coastal dune vegetation. Plant and Soil: 1-22
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Various coastal events you will find here: https://www.eucc-d.de/events-conferences.html
12.-16.09.2022: LITTORAL 2022, Lisbon
14.-18.11.2022: Coastal Ecology Workshop, Schiermonnikoog
The organisers are looking forward for an in-person Coastal Ecology Workshop this year. The event will take place on the Dutch Wadden Sea Island Schiermonnikoog, which allows to visit beautiful sites in the Wadden Sea system. The organisation committee is a team from the GELIFES faculty at the University of Groningen and the Royal Dutch Institute for Sea Research.
To register for the workshop, please fill in your contact details through this REGISTRATION FORM.
The cost of the workshop comes down to €192,- per participant. The cost includes your stay at the newly renovated field station "Herdershut", food, workshop, excursion, and your ferry ticket to the island of Schiermonnikoog. Payment details can be found in the registration form.
For questions regarding the workshop please send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org
17.-18.11.2022: ATELIERS de TERRAIN, TOULON
The next workshop of the EUCC France is planned on the mediterranean coast, est of Toulon. http://www.euccfrance.fr/index.php/ateliers/prochains-ateliers
The Coastal & Marine Union EUCC is a stakeholder and network association with expert members and NGO member organisations in 40 countries.
Commission on Coastal Systems (CCS) of the International Geographical Union (IGU) WWW
EU Nature Communicationplatform WWW Information and meetings mainly dealing particularly with Natura2000
TMAP Saltmarshes and Dunes WWW
Mediterranean Coastal Foundation WWW
Agentschap voor Natuur en Bos (ANB) WWW
Agentschap Maritieme Dienstverlening en Kust (MDK)/Maritime and Coastal Services WWW
Instituut voor Natuur- en Bosonderzoek (INBO)/Research Institut Nature and Forest WWW
Center for Coastal and Marine Studies (CCMS) WWW coastal aspects along the Black Sea
EUCC France WWW
EUCC-France organize, for more than twenty years, two field workshops each year, on coastal issues. These "ateliers de terrain" are field visits the day 1 and discussion the day 2. On the website (www.euccfrance.fr) you can find the guide booklet and the report of these workshops (in French), e.g. report of the last "atelier" at Biscarrosse, dune zone on the aquitaine coast.
President: Jean Favennec jeanfaven(at)numericable.fr
President: d'honneur Yvonne Battiau-Queney yvonne.battiau(at)orange.fr
Secrétaire Générale: Sandrine Aubié sandrine.aubie(at)wanadoo.fr
Conservatoire du littoral WWW
Coastline observatories network in France The Observatory of the coast with interactive maps allow to visualize the elements collected by all participating structures. Observatory of the Aquitaine coast, Observatory of the north of France, Observatory of Pays de la Loire
UK Sand Dune and Shingle Network WWW
National Trust WWW
Natural England WWW
Natural Resources Wales WWW
East Grampian Coastal Partnership: The Aberdeen Institute for Coastal Science and Management (AICSM) works alongside the East Grampian Coastal Partnership (EGCP) in a range of coastal projects. WWW
Stichting Duinbehoud https://www.duinbehoud.nl/
Stichting Duinbehoud is a foundation for the protection of the coast. In the interest of nature and people who want to enjoy it. Together with donors, volunteers and other organizations, they join forces to expertly solve problems in the dune area. Dune conservation regularly advises the government and managers to better protect nature or to set up new nature reserves. By providing information, conducting campaigns, consultation and – as a last resort – legal proceedings, Dune Conservation strengthens nature along the coast.
Dune conservation has three 'big' objectives:
1. Dune conservation: conservation of nature and landscape in the (young and old) Dutch dunes.
2. Dune restoration: restoration of valuable dune nature and landscapes.
3. Dune experience: dune conservation and restoration is also available for people.
They publish regularly and with a long tradition the Journal DUIN https://www.duinbehoud.nl/duin-magazine/, as well as a newsletter "DuinTopics".
Kennisnetwerk Ontwikkeling en Beheer Natuurkwaliteit (OBN)/OBN Knowledge Network WWW
'In the OBN Knowledge Network, researchers, conservation site managers, universities, consultancies, NGO’s and governmental bodies, such as provinces and water boards, closely cooperate to restore ecosystems and nature reserves. In this network, knowledge and practice intermingle, and science and nature management jointly look for the most effective approaches to enhance sustainable conservation of important ecosystems in the Dutch landscapes. Since 2006 The OBN Knowledge network formulates each 4 to 5 years its mission statement and knowledge agenda which is leading in all OBN related activities. Based on this mission statement, landscape-based ‘Expert Teams’ are working on the development, dissemination and implementation of knowledge on restoration and rehabilitation of nature reserves, on issues regarding Natura 2000 and the EU Water Framework Directive, as well as on distribution problems of individual species. During the last decade, the OBN Knowlegde Network is also focusing on environmental problems, such as the effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, climate change, sea level rise, coastal defense, flood risks, and other changes in the hydrological systems. In these fields of research, the network cooperates with many research institutes.
The Dutch OBN Knowledge Network for Nature Restoration and Management
• is an independent and innovative platform where policy makers, site managers and scientists cooperate in the management and restoration of natural areas;
• it develops and disseminates knowledge to enhance nature quality management and conservation in the Dutch lansdcapes and in the Atlantic Region.'
Puur Water & Natuur (PWN) WWW
Rijkswaterstaat/Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and Water WWW
Dunes in Poland WWW
FINLAND, Baltic Sea
Archipelago Research Institute (University of Turku), https://sites.utu.fi/seili/en/title/
Husö Biological Station (Åbo Akademi University), https://www.abo.fi/en/huso-biological-station/
Nåtö Biological Station (Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica), https://www.societasfff.fi/nato-biological-station?lang=en
Tvärminne Zoological Station (University of Helsinki), https://www2.helsinki.fi/en/research-stations/tvarminne-zoological-station
Valsörarna Biological Station (Ostrobothia Australis), https://www.oa.fi/valsorarna/
Hanko Bird Observation Station (Tringa ry), https://www.halias.fi/
Jurmo Bird Observation Station (TLY ry), https://www.tly.fi/jurmon-lintuasema/
Perämeri Biological Field Station (University of Oulu), https://www.oulu.fi/fi/tutkimus/tutkimusinfrastruktuurit/biodiversiteettiyksikko/perameren-tutkimusasema
GERMANY, North Sea
Carolinensiel (University of Muenster). https://www.uni-muenster.de/Biologie.Zoophysiologie/Station/ Contact: Dr. Hans-Ulrich Steeger, steeger (at) uni-muenster.de
Wittbülten Research Station Spiekeroog. https://www.nationalparkhaus-wittbuelten.de/de/forschung/forschungszentrum_wittbuelten.html Contact: forschung (at) wittbuelten.de
AWI Helgoland. https://www.awi.de/en/about-us/sites/helgoland.html
GERMANY, Baltic Sea
Zingst Biological Station (University of Rostock), https://www.bsz.uni-rostock.de, PD Dr. Rhena Schumann, rhena.schumann (at) uni-rostock.de
Hiddensee Biological Station (University of Greifswald), https://biologie.uni-greifswald.de/struktur/zentrale-einrichtungen/biologische-station-hiddensee/ PD Dr. Irmgard Blindow, blindi (AT) uni-greifswald.de
THE NETHERLANDS, North Sea
Schiermonnikoog Field Station (University of Groningen) https://twitter.com/hanolff/status/1438486103749713926, Contact: Prof. Dr. Han Olff h.olff (AT) rug.nl
Maike Isermann, mail: dunes-d (at) eucc-d.de