BEACH AND DUNE NETWORK
Coastal dunes are one of the most threatened habitats in Europe. They offer habitats for various, often specialised animals and plants; and the unique landscape constitute an important service for human well-being. Human pressure, landscape use and the nature values result in conflicts of interests.
Aims of the Coastal network, to
We set out to achieve this by
Who is involved?
The Network includes, amongst others, site managers, national policy makers, students, researchers, ecologists, geomorphologists, hydrologists, foresters, coastal engineers, tourism managers.... . Events always involve a cross-section of interests to bridge the gap between disciplines and to encourage lively debate.
Members' distribution (2020)
There are a number of national and regional dune networks already formed in several countries, e.g.
Join the Network
To join the network, please send an email. Your data from the application will be entered in an internal (within the network), non-public accessible database. This allows us to connect interdisciplinary members if the need should arise. We welcome members from outside the Federal Republic of Germany, as one of the goals of our network is to promote cooperation in Germany, Europe, and worldwide. If you are interested in European or international cooperation, you can get in touch with the European Dune Network.
Do you have hints or ideas for improving our network or holding events, or do you know people who could support the Beach and Dune Network? If so, please send us an email to Maike Isermann dunes-d (at) eucc-d.de.BACKtoSTART
Rediscover: EUCC Coastal & Marine -2021-
The EUCC-webpage has relaunched, and you will find more coastal and marine features.
World Sand Dune Day 25'June 2021...
|Coastal dune strip along the Black Sea (above) with Glaucium flavum (below) one species of the Red Book of the Ukraine @ Vitalii Kolomiichuk; Institute of Biology and Medicine, National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Ukraine|
|Oenanthe oenanthe breeding in rabbit burrows in grey dunes on the island of Norderney. The island is a hot spot of Oenanthe @ Rolf Schauder, Volonteer National Park Authority Norderney, Germany.|
|The grey dunes of the Lower Saxon Wadden Sea National Park offers lots of food for the bird, Oenanthe oenanthe @ Rolf Schauder, Volonteer National Park Authority Norderney, Germany.|
|Former active blow outs develop to more or less wet dune slacks with lots of Red Book Species like different orchids @ Niels Biewer, Ranger National Park Authority Norderney, Germany.|
- Nitrogen Deposition in Dutch Dunes
- Coasts for Kids
- Mangement development in France
- World Sand Dune Day
- 10 years of Sand Motor
- ENDURE - Ensuring Dune Resilience Against Climate Change
- News from the Coast Poland
- CoastNet LIFE-project
- Sand dunes, mobility, and cultural heritage
- Definition of favourable conservation status for coastal sand dunes
- Support of green beach near Ouddorp, NL
- Drift-lines, green beaches...
- Coastal change and golf links research project
- Proceedings Littoral conference ‘Change, Naturalness and People’
- Sands of LIFE: spotlight on… bryophytes
- Restoring grey dunes by reactivating small-scale dynamics
- Joint dune expert meeting: Lower Saxon Wadden Sea National Park + Expert Consortium Dutch Coast (ECDC)
- Salt spray distribution: a review
- Foredunes: geomorphology related to management; Marine & Aeolian Processes
- French coastal dunes, examples of resilient beach-dune systems
- Restoration of coastal dunes
- Dune management to support their natural dynamic? Discussion
- LIFE project FLANDRE: start of a lasting cooperation
- Rabbits: Lessons from the past and abroad
- Calluna heath die-back on the island Hiddensee, Baltic Sea, DE
- DUNES - Sea, Sand and People
- Reduction of nitrogen input by precipitation - a entusiastic goal...
- Restoration of danish coastal habitats
- Dynamic Dunescapes project
- Sands of LIFE
- Information ... 2019
DUNEA, The Netherlands
DUNEA has been fighting the effects of nitrogen deposition in the areas we manage for over 30 years. We do this with nature restoration projects and nitrogen-related management activities, such as: turf cutting, mowing and grazing. This has cost about 4 million euros in the past 10 years.
Our research into the effects of grazing did not prove that too much measures were taken. That is why we have switched to summer and winter grazing, for example. So you cannot 'manage away' the effects of nitrogen indefinitely. Reducing emissions is the only sustainable path to natural recovery.
Further information (in Dutch): https://www.dunea.nl/algemeen/nieuws/2021/stikstofneerslag-in-de-duinen
A series of educational videos about the coast, for children, and also adults! Led by Irene Delgado-Fernandez, coastal geomorphologist, this series has resulted in a wonderful contribution to environmental education on the coast.
‘Coasts for Kids is a collaborative experience between children and their parents, coastal scientists, community artists, teachers, animators and coastal managers. The series is aimed at kids aged 6 and over. It includes important concepts in coastal processes and coastal evolution in Episodes 1, 2 and 3, followed up by analyses of human impacts in Episode 4 and management actions in Episode 5.
The series (trailer + 5 episodes) will be ready for free download shortly, and this will be communicated in our Youtube Channel (https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLXgQva8tPStrhjCl3AiaayBAwMCh2x-xL) and via twitter/online networks (@IreneDelgadoFe2).Public videos available at (and ready to share).
Sandrine Aubié, EUCC-France
Jean Favennec published a manuscript about the management strategy of the coastal strip in France. This manuscript traces the development of management strategies since the 1960s (in French).
The first World Sand Dune Day will be marked in June this year to highlight the importance of conserving these vital coastal habitats around the world.
The day of celebration will take place on 25 June 2021 and has been established by the Sands of LIFE and Dynamic Dunescapes projects - two initiatives dedicated to protecting sand dunes in England and Wales and the wildlife that depend upon them.
Healthy dunes provide habitats for a wealth of rare and specialised wildlife. These include a range of wildflowers, bryophytes, invertebrates and insects which require bare sand habitat to survive.
Coastal sand dunes and the surrounding landscapes also provide important recreational spaces for communities through connection with nature and providing links to cultural heritage and celebrated historic sites.
Over the last 80 years, open sand has largely disappeared from sand dunes, replaced by dense grass and scrub. This change has been caused by factors such as the introduction of non-native plants, lower levels of grazing, climate change and air pollution. As the dunes have become more stable and overgrown, rare wildlife has declined.
To mark the first-ever World Sand Dune Day both projects hope to be able to take part in several small-scale events, lead guided walks and deliver talks on this special habitat. All events and content will be announced in due course. Please keep an eye on both projects’ Twitter accounts @TwyniByw and @DynamicDunes for further updates.
To mark the first-ever World Sand Dune Day both projects hope to be able to take part in several Covid-safe events, guided walks and talks on this special habitat. Find out more here.
In 2011 started a pilot project: the Sand Motor. An artificial sandbank, a significant boost for innovative coastline maintenance and a perfect example of Building with Nature. Thanks to the influence of the wind and the sea currents, the Sand Motor has now grown into a beautiful nature reserve and recreational area. Its development is being closely followed and is receiving a great deal of international attention.
Ten years of research and special collaborations have resulted in an innovative way to maintain the coastal area, new possibilities for the surroundings and a wealth of knowledge. A unique connection between nature, science and society. Presented will the results of the project on 1 July 2021 during the final congress marking 10 years of the Sand Motor, which is part of the international Coastal Dynamics congress.
Join the Sand Motor congress
Sign up for this milestone via the Coastal Dynamics congress website to be sure of a ticket. You can attend the event online or live. This partly depends on the COVID restrictions in place on 1 July. On 2 July you can take part in a field trip to the Sand Motor itself, with an explanation from the involved researchers and managers.
Mel Gillings, Biodiversity Projects Officer, Norfolk County Council
ENDURE is an INTERREG Two Seas project 2014-2020 testing ways to make our sand dunes more resilient. www.endure.eu.com.
The project will look at establishing sand dunes as adaptive, living sea defences. Many traditional concrete sea defences are old and failing and can be expensive or challenging to maintain. Natural ecosystems can provide better, more resilient protection: sand dunes naturally migrate, flex and evolve to create a self-replenishing barrier to the sea.
However, this adaptive ability is often compromised by poor and/or reactive management that deals with the aftermath of erosion or flooding events, rather than preventing these events from happening in the first place.
Over three years the project partnership will work collaboratively using the best of cutting-edge science, design and innovation, to develop a coastline with more natural resilience to erosion, flooding and rising sea levels.
The newsletter is also available in French and Dutch via the website https://endure.eu.com/latest-news/newsletter2
Tomasz Arkadiusz Łabuz, University of Szczecin, Poland
Storms and high tides since years bring a lot of litter to the beach. Is there any change in the amount and the composition of the litter?
Embryonic dunes with Honckenya peploides, measured in surface and height since 2017, increase. Is there any relation to storms, growing beaches, tourism?
New plant species arrived at the Polish Coast, e.g. Elymus farctus is spreading. How is the relation to geomophology and climate change?
Well known dune grasses occur, Ammophila arenaria, x Calammophila baltica, Calamagrostis epigejos. But along the Polish Coast a taxon with a much larger flowering stand occur. An answer to the systematic is still missing.
Panu Kunttu, archipelago ecologist, Finland
Further information: https://www.metsa.fi/en/project/coastnet-life/
- In memorian to Phil -
Phil Dyke, Coast and Marine Adviser, National Trust, Research Associate University of York, Great Britain
Dyke,P. (2020) Sand dunes, mobility and cultural heritage. A report to the National Trust. 125 pp.
Research about sand dunes, their mobility (past, present, and future), and impacts on cultural heritage from the Atlantic coast of South West France, to the Low Countries, around the UK and the island of Ireland.
The research theme centred on the idea that dune landscapes are rich in cultural heritage, yet their inherent dynamism and potentially increased future mobility, driven by climate change, may present new challenges for dune managers and dune stakeholders - challenges that need to be better understood.
Through conversations with dune managers, academics, and dune stakeholders it became clear that cultural heritage stories and associations offer a way to engage with and capture public interest in dune landscapes. This approach is perhaps more easily accessible than the often technical narratives of the natural sciences.
In addition to cataloguing the cultural heritage interests, also researched is the topic of physical dune mobility based on historic, contemporary, and projected future dune behaviour. Over the coming decades we will need to get used to the idea of shorelines changing rapidly in response to climate change. Dune coasts are no exception, and indeed we are already seeing evidence of this during storm events with beach lowering and cutting back of foredune features.
The impact of climate change on dune landscapes is however likely to be mixed. On the one hand dune fronts and beaches are likely to become increasingly mobilised in response to storm events, and correspondingly the cultural heritage features within this zone will be impacted first and worst. In marked contrast the dune hinterlands are likely to maintain their stability, due to the protective mantle of sand binding vegetation and processes of ecological succession, meaning that any onset of greater mobility could be delayed for decades. There will be exceptions to more stable dune hinterlands where for example mobility already exists, such as at Formby on the Sefton coast.
Whilst the impacts of climate change at the coast may vary, what is certain is that at a site-based scale the likely impacts will need to be taken into account by those managing sand dunes, for nature, for cultural heritage, for recreation, or as sea defence structures. For the Trust this will mean committing resources to understand and record change on beaches and in foredunes, not just in reaction to individual storm events but as part of a regular regime of monitoring that provides an evidence base to show how sand dunes, and their mobility, are impacting on cultural heritage over time. To this end offering the following recommendations:
1. Recognise that cultural heritage features associated with sand dunes are of significant value in providing a tangible way to better understand shoreline change and engage with stakeholders.
2. Pursue a proactive programme of monitoring coastal change on sand dune sites in partnership with relevant agencies and research establishments with a specific emphasis on historic environment interests, adopting the SCAPE model from Scotland, and as appropriate linking to region and country Coastal Monitoring Observatories.
3. Put in place a more fleet-of-foot approach to achieving preservation by record that can be rapidly mobilised by having in place ‘call-out contracts’ to enable additional external expert help to be deployed in response to a storm event.
4. Review Trust sand dune locations to determine where, through acquisition or partnership working, it is possible to provide accommodation space for dune evolution inland or along the shoreline.
5. Contribute to the Dynamic Dunescapes project workstream ‘Sand dune management handbook’ to develop contemporary guidance for site managers that includes geomorphological, historic, and natural environment interests, climate change impacts and access issues.
6. Maintain and/or establish broad ranging sand dune management research partnerships with Universities and other research bodies for key Trust sand dune locations.
Sue Rees, Natural England
This document sets out Natural England’s view on Favourable Conservation Status (FCS) for coastal sand dunes in England. FCS is defined in terms of three parameters: natural range and distribution, area, and structure and function attributes.
Section 2 provides the summary definition of FCS in England. Section 3 covers contextual information, Section 4 the metrics used and Section 5 describes the evidence considered when defining FCS for each of the three parameters. Section 6 sets out the conclusions on favourable values for each of the three parameters. Annex 3 lists the references.
This document does not include any action planning, or describe actions, to achieve or maintain FCS. These will be presented separately, for example within strategy documents. The guidance document Defining Favourable Conservation Status in England describes the Natural England approach to defining FCS.
Krijn Tanis, Stichting Duinbehoud
From spring 2021 there will no longer be cleaning machines on a two-kilometer stretch of beach near Ouddorp. Any seaweed that remains is good for the birds that nest on the beach.
The stretch of beach between the lighthouse and De Vrijheid is the first official green beach of Goeree-Overflakkee. From now on, rubbish will be removed manually by a group of volunteers. The seaweed just remains, allowing all kinds of small life to grow.
The beach had become a blank sandbox in recent years, all life was gone. Machines clean the beach. As a result, birds, such as the ringed plover that breeds on the Ouddorp beach, cannot find food.
Agreements have been made with the municipality to better protect nature. Not only does cleaning no longer take place, but it has also been determined that cars (from the water board, municipality, ...) will all run on one track from now on. Signs will be placed to explain to visitors why a green beach is important and why dogs, for example, are not allowed to run loose during the breeding season.
Turning the Plastic Tide (TTPT) project - which is funded by the EMFF - responsible for beach cleans in Aberdeen and Aberdeenshire. EGCP Ltd is a not-for-profit limited company representing individuals and organisations who have an interest in the well-being of the local coast between Kinnaird Head, Fraserburgh and the mouth of the River North Esk, by St Cyrus. EGCP was first established in 2005. Further information.
Project: COASTAL CHANGE AND GOLF LINKS RESEARCH PROJECT-2020-
Paul Rooney, Hope University, Liverpool, Great Britain
The ‘Coastal Change and Golf Links Research Project’ is established to identify current levels of coastal management understanding and engagement across links and cliff top golf courses.
The study aims to establish the levels of awareness, understanding and engagement of coastal change that are held by the relevant golf courses, national governing bodies for golf, professional golf associations and key stakeholders. The research will provide a clear account of overall levels of coastal change awareness and support this with a consideration and appraisal of existing management measures.
At the conclusion of the project the findings will demonstrate how prepared golf clubs are across the British Isles for the challenges that lie ahead and how the more proactive golf clubs are providing sustainable coastal management within their course management.
The Proceedings of the 2017 Littoral conference ‘Change, Naturalness and People’ have been published and can be downloaded from the Natural and Environmental Research Councils Open Research Archive (NORA).
Effects of Periodic Lake Level Variations and Local Influences on the Ecohydrology of a Lake Michigan Coastal Dune Slack. (Suzanne J. DeVries-Zimmerman, Jennifer L. Fuller, Benjamin C.T. Van Gorp, Alexandria M. Watts, Dane C. Peterson, and Edward C. Hansen)
Prunus serotina invades Dutch coastal dunes; management experience from the Amsterdam Water Supply Dunes.(Luc H.W.T. Geelen and Bernard Oosterbaan)
Conservation of dune habitats in the Atlantic Biogeographic Region: the Dune Roadmap for knowledge exchange and networking 2016-2020. (John Houston)
Identifying The Drivers Of Long-Term Vegetation Change In Scottish Sand Dunes. (Robin J Pakeman)
Conservation or Preservation; the challenge of aligning scientific, public and policy understanding of dune ecosystems to deliver Favourable Conservation Status. (John Ratcliffe, Sue Rees, Sam Bosanquet, Julie Creer, Mike Howe and Emmer Litt)
Forty years of rabbit influence on vegetation development in the coastal dunes of Meijendel, the Netherlands.(Harrie G.J.M. van der Hagen, Nils van Rooijen and Joop H.J. Schaminée)
The Sands of LIFE project’s bryophyte survey report was recently released. This report assessed potential impacts of the project on rare and protected mosses and liverworts in dune slack intervention areas.
Areas were surveyed at six sites, namely Tywyn Aberffraw, Newborough, Morfa Harlech, Pembrey Burrows, Kenfig and Merthyr Mawr. Three notable species were recorded: Abietinella abietina and Petalophyllum ralfsii at Tywyn Aberffraw, and Drepanocladus sendtneri at Kenfig.
Abietinella abietina moss is now very rare in Wales and will be included on the forthcoming Red List of bryophytes in Britain as ‘Near-threatened’ due to a national decline.
Petalophyllum ralfsii, otherwise known as petalwort, is a liverwort which is a European protected species and is strictly protected by law. It lives in areas of bare sand or thin turf within slacks, often alongside pathways.
Drepanocladus sendtneri (Chalk hook-moss) is a key part of the Site of Special Scientific Interest Dune Bryophyte Assemblage feature of Kenfig.
Mark van Til, Luc Geelen
In the context of Natura 2000, rare species and vegetation types in the Netherlands are protected in a European perspective. This report (in Dutch with English summary) focuses on the H2130 Grey dunes Habitat type, for which the Netherlands has great responsibility within the EU.
Aeolian dynamics was and is a very important precondition for biodiversity of the coastal dunes. Aeolian dynamics ensure both rejuvenation of the soil, pioneering situations and succession to new dune grasslands. It is assumed that mild dynamics in the form of small-scale spraying can greatly contribute to the quality of dune grasslands. Due to changes in the use and management of coastal dunes, the dispersal dynamics have decreased in many dune areas in the past century. This has major consequences for biodiversity and therefore also the quality of Gray dunes.
In the Nitrogen Programmatic Approach (PAS) great importance is attached to the role of aeolian dynamics within the coastal dune landscape. In the PAS recovery strategy, the reactivation of spraying fresh sand is considered to be a proven measure for the development and / or conservation of habitat type H2130 Grey dunes (lime-rich as well as lime-poor), with which negative effects of nitrogen deposition can be mitigated. Within the PAS there are extensive interventions in the pipeline in he Netherlands to bring back aeolian dynamics on a particularly small scale within the dune landscape with the aim of improving the preconditions for Grey dunes. So there is an enormous, urgent need for practically applicable knowledge on this subject.
The purpose of this research is to find out what the most important factors are that control the development and the aeolian life of small-scale blowouts in coastal dunes. In addition, the influence of small-scale spraying of lime and sand in time and space on the maintenance ('ecological lifespan') of diversity of system-characteristic plants and animals in both limestone-rich and limestone poor dunes has been determined.
Finally, this knowledge has been translated into practical management tools for the maintenance, restoration and new development of Grey dunes by reactivating small blowouts.
The aim of the Knowledge Network for Development and Management of Nature Quality (OBN) is to develop, disseminate and utilize knowledge for area managers about nature restoration, Natura 2000, PAS, habitat management approaches and the development of new nature. A number of specific management recommendations have also been published on the application of small-scale dynamics.
Further information on this issue (in Dutch) on the website www.natuurkennis.nl, e.g. Background report:
Joint dune expert meeting:
Lower Saxon Wadden Sea National Park + Expert Consortium Dutch Coast (ECDC)-2020-
Maike Isermann, Luc Geelen, Eva Remke et al.
Coastal dunes and salt marshes are originally dynamic landscapes. In the context of coastal protection measures against storm surges, dykes often were built on the mainland and at the southern sides of the Wadden islands. Seawards, dunes on the islands are often shaped to dune-dykes, and represent a more natural coastal protection measure. Moreover, particularly in former times, sand dynamic of dunes was fixed e.g. by Marram planting. Thus, nowadays dynamic coastal dunes rarely occur. More and more, a general discussion to support the natural dynamic of dunes and salt marshes started. Motivation to enhance natural dynamics at the one hand is the discussion about more sustainable coastal protection measures, e.g. building with nature projects, and on the other hand, the enhanced biodiversity in dynamic landscapes. The Lower Saxon Wadden Sea National Park offers in various areas possibilities to study dynamic areas. For example, the eastern part of the island Spiekeroog represents dynamic beaches and dunes as well as transitions zones to salt marshes.
To study, discuss and to exchange our knowledge a joint dune expert excursion with participants from the Expert Consortium Dutch Coast (ECDC) and the Lower Saxon Wadden Sea National Park visited the island of Spiekeroog from the 8.-11. October 2020. At first, the group visited the central part of the island, which as usual is protected by high dune systems, dynamics are reduced but since some years, a sandbank occurs in front of this part of the island. Clearly visible for the group was that the central part of the island is characterised by fixed grey and brown dunes with crowberry (Empetrum nigrum) (Habitat Type 2130* and 2140*). In some parts of the island, invasive alien species (IAS) like Rosa rugosa, Prunus serotina and pine trees spread more and more. The typical open dune landscape declined, habitat conditions for light-demanding plant species e.g. Dune Pansey (Viola tricolor) and particularly lichens as well as for birds like Shored-eared Owl (Asio flammeus) and Eurasian Curlew (Numenius arquata) are deteriorating. The experts recommend to support the grey dunes (LRT 2130*) and bird habitat. Small-scale dune dynamics (blowouts) in the old dunes could improve the quality of grey dunes, small fauna and avifauna dependent on them.
In contrast to the old dunes, the dynamics of wash-overs particularly of the “Leegde”, as well as some smaller ones in the eastern part of the island support a mosaic of environmental conditions and vegetation. A more dynamic landscape supports a higher coverage of pioneer stages of sandy dunes as well as salt marshes compared with the central part of Spiekeroog. Recent research about the hydrology of the island, particularly the eastern part, was explained by Prof. Dr. Grudrun Massmann, University Oldenburg. Another highlight for the group was the very dynamic, broad accumulating beach and primary dune system in the eastern part of the island, with a mixture of drift-line and primary dune species. Habitat types 1310, 2110 and 2120 are well developed.
Overall, the excursion shows the great importance of expert meetings with on-site discussion and knowledge exchange.
Bas Arens, Luc Geelen
Jianhui Du & Patrick Hesp recently published a review article on Salt Spray Distribution and Its Impact on Vegetation Zonation on Coastal Dunes. Salt spray is, after sand deposition, often considered the second dominant factor contributing to vegetation zonation in coastal dunes. Salt Spray mainly originates from the bursting of bubbles in breaking waves, is carried by wind, intercepted by coastal dunes and plants, and redistributed in the sand/soil after precipitation. In this paper, the literature on salt spray distribution and impact on dune plants are reviewed.
SEE: Estuaries and Coasts https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12237-020-00820-2
In their article “Geomorphologic characteristics and evolution of managed dunes on the South West Coast of France” Victor Bossard and Alexandre Nicolae Lerma describe a geomorphologic classification of foredunes along the 230 km of the Aquitaine coast and they analyze relations between dune management actions and marine and aeolian driven processes. Summing up management strategies conducted on the Aquitaine coast, three scenarios are generally considered to face the consequences of severe marine erosion. In the light of chronic erosion and relatively low sediment availably dynamics, these scenarios integrate into a stable to receding coast. With further sea level rise over the next decades probably requires extensive new management strategies. And authors promote so-called “controlled dynamic strategy” or guided remobilisation in order to adapt these environments to actual and future pressures.
French coastal dunes of the Côte d’Opale (northern France). Examples of resilient beach-dune systems with mobile foredunes-2020-
Northwards view showing a resilient coastal system: on the left picture, from left to right, 500m-wide sandy beach with ridge-and-runnel morphology, mobile foredune with Ammophila arenaria, partly stabilized older dunes with parabolic landforms and “grey” vegetation cover. These dunes were mobile and directly linked with the beach until the end of the last century. The foredune formed in the last 20 years. On the right picture, typical vegetation of the mobile foredune.
The beach-dune contact may change rapidly, according to the macro-tidal range, and the wave and wind instantaneous climate. A steep sand cliff can form after successive storm events, but it can change in a few months into a concave profile with incipient dunes on the upper beach.
Researches on this coastal section are in progress (CNRS Laboratory of Oceanology and Geosciences, LOG, University of Lille and University of Littoral)
Coastal sand dunes are home to stunning, species-rich ecosystems and provide numerous services to mankind, such as storm protection, opportunities for tourism and production of drinking water. Most coastal sand dunes across Northwest Europe currently experience denser vegetation cover and geomorphological stabilisation, resulting in a rapid decline in biodiversity and loss of important services. Nature managers are therefore increasingly implementing pragmatic nature-based solutions to restore static dunes into dynamic ecosystems.
- Monitoring the vegetation evolution in restoration projects using new satellite systems in order to facilitate the evaluation of these projects by stakeholders;
- Testing our conceptual model and converting it into a predictive bio-geomorphological coastal evolution model;
- Contributing to solve present-day and future scientific and practice-inspired challenges in which combined nature and coastal protection goals are to be optimised
A discussion about the publication from Delgado-Fernandez et al. (2019) "Is 're-mobilisation' nature restoration or nature destruction?" Journal of Coastal Conservation 23: 1093-1103 has started.
Comments are available:
Creer, J., Ratcliffe, J., Rees, S., Thomas, N., & Smith, P. (2020) Journal of Coastal Conservation 24: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-020-00745-9.
Arens et al. (2020) Journal of Coastal Conservation 24:17 -https://rdcu.be/b1Z40
Link to the signed Memorandum: https://www.natuurenbos.be/sites/default/files/inserted-files/memorandum-protocole_westkust-dunes_de_flandre_14-02-2020.pdf
A well illustrated report about the LIFE+ FLANDRE project, you will find: Layman’s Report of the LIFE+ FLANDRE project
The OBN Research project "Restoring Rabbit populations in coastal dunes" is halfway through. Some first results are published in a newsletter (OBN, 2019). Restocking is a commonly used practice in wildlife management, and particularly for European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in France, Portugal and Spain. Many populations are declining, primarily because of habitat destruction and both myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease.
Now that the rabbit is not doing well in many coastal dune areas, there are proposals to move rabbits from populations with good density. When the rabbits have completely disappeared, reintroduction may be an option. But improving existing populations with low density earlier may be a better strategy. There are some small experiments in the Netherlands with local reintroduction or addition of rabbits. In addition to a discussion of Dutch projects the OBN project will also deal with a literature study. Experience from management by dune farmers in the 17th century, and the experiences in France and Spain are gathered.
Rabbit breeding sites in the Netherlands
It is instructive to see how the dune farmers (“Duinmeiers”) in former days promoted rabbit populations. In the Netherlands in the 14th century already a system was created in the dunes of open warren "warandes" (breeding and hunting grounds), for commercial keeping of wild rabbits for their meat and fur. Information about their activities we owe Prof. Swaen for the translation of one of the oldest known manuscripts in the Dutch language, dealing with hunting and falconry from ± 1635. In sparsely populated areas of the dune warren the duinmeier made artificial caves with a special drill. He fed the rabbits in the winter with hay, oats and bran or willow prunings. The “Duinmeier” fought predators and birds of prey; which led even to the eradication of the fox in the Dutch dunes.
Experience from France and Spain
In France and Spain, many rabbits have been released or placed for hunting in the past, an estimated thousands per year. Nowadays also rabbits are managed for the conservation of native predators. We see the same management here as with the Dutch duinmeiers: sufficient food, making artificial nests and protection against predators. In Spain people make great efforts to preserve the rabbit as a prey animal for rare predators such as the Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus) and the Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti). Improving the habitat turned out to be one positive effect on the rabbit population. In this case was the reduction by burning low shrubs seemed to be effective. Various factors are studied in a large experiment: the season in which the introduction is made, the numbers that are added and the quality of the release area (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor habitat). Success was measured by survival, the extent to which the rabbits remained in the area and the expected population growth. The highest success was achieved with a low number of released rabbits (40 on 15 ha)
in a nutrient-rich habitat. Placing in the breeding season is unfavorable, because there are many conflicts about mating and nesting during this period, where animals chase or injure each other. But because of considerable lack of knowledge most of current rabbit management programs should be revised to optimize the use of
available resources in the attainment of an effective rabbit density increase.
Letty (2003) has done experiments in France with additions of rabbits. He found a high mortality in the first two weeks and strong dispersion (withdrawal) of the new rabbits. In a population that the researchers followed day by day in the first two days after release 41-51% of rabbits died from predation or stress. And also later predation led to a lower survival than in a population protected against predators. The rabbits settled up to 225 meters from the artificial nests in which they were released. Moreover, the surviving rabbits that were introduces did not take fully part in reproduction.
In summary preliminary results show:
- Additional placement requires a lot of effort and is not always successful.
- A prerequisite for success is the suitability of the habitat.
- Protection against predators for a longer period is necessary.
OBN will provide a more detailed overview in their final report giving the methods and techniques used.
Swaen, A.E.H.(red), 1948. Jacht-Bedryff. Brill, Leiden,
Angulo, E., Calvete, C., Cabezas, S. &. Villafuerte, R. 2004: Scrub management and rabbit translocations at Doñana National Park: long and short-term effectiveness. 2nd world lagomorph conference.
Letty, J., Aubineau, J., Marchandeau, S. & Clobert, J. 2003: Effect of translocation on survival in wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). - Mammalian Biology 68: 250-255.
OBN, 2019. NEWSLETTER Recovery rabbit populations in the coastal dunes– oktober 2019 (In Dutch)
Alba Anadon-Rosell & Melanie Dombrowsky
Research include the stugy of the annual rings of Calluna vulgaris plants from Hiddensee, more specifically from two heathlands of different age at the Dünenheide. Collecting plants in groups of three growing next to each other: (1) plants that looked healthy, (2) plants that were dead and (3) plants that were a bit damaged. We replicated this several times across the heathlands. We are trying to find out whether plants died after the 2018 drought or before, and whether the die-back is related to their age and/or the growth of previous years.
In addition, a manipulation experiment was set up in the same area, also in two heatlands of different age. There, rain-out shelters have been built to simulate drought, and vegetation (mainly heather) has been clipped to simulate browsing. I attach a link with further explanations on the experiment:
The project is an Environmental History project focused in the relation between people and coastal dunes.The team combines geologists, historians, geographers and biologists. Covering the last three centuries and using a transdisciplinary approach, our team will travel across borders and centuries to find out who were the pivotal actors that changed the course of history of coastal dunes.
Further Information: http://dunes.letras.ulisboa.pt/en/project/
The Netherlands will allocate five billion euros over the next ten years to tackle nitrogen precipitation. In a letter to Minister Schouten and the four coastal provinces, the Duinbehoud Foundation asks to invest primarily in the proper management of nature restoration projects and in the construction of buffers around the nature reserves.
Marc Janssen, biologist and director of the Dune Conservation Foundation, is pleased that money is being released for nature restoration. “Five billion is a significant investment and a step in the right direction. But if it remains that way, nature will still be exposed to too much nitrogen in 2030. Investments are also necessary after 2030, in particular to structurally reduce nitrogen emissions. ”
Originally, the Dutch dune area is nutrient-poor. For centuries, flora and fauna have established their survival strategies for this. Now nitrogen is seriously disrupting the ecosystem. In the Dutch dune areas, this is reflected in an excessive vegetation with shrubs and grasses. As a result, dunes hardly drift and the original species-rich vegetation, birds and insects disappear. Birds find less and less food in overgrown places in the dunes. Animals are also victims.
Further information in Dutch: https://duinbehoud.nl/stikstof-een-bedreiging-voor-het-ecosysteem-in-de-duinen/
The focus of the layman's report 2019 is fighting Rosa rugosa in dunes and heathland, but also natural hydrology and establishment of bird islands are discussed.
Dynamic Dunescapes is a project restoring sand dunes across England and Wales for the benefit of people, communities and threatened dune wildlife.
This project will restore nine key dune areas, from Cornwall to Cumbria. These key areas include 34 individual dune systems and cover up to 7,000 hectares. Natural England, Plantlife, National Trust, Natural Resources Wales, Wildlife Trusts, Cornwall Wildlife Trust, Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust and Cumbria Wildlife Trust are working in partnership to deliver this ambitious project.
Running until 2023, this project will: restore sand dunes by carrying out pioneering conservation actions; raise awareness that healthy dunes need moving sand; encourage more people to explore, enjoy, and help protect the dunes through a programme of innovative public engagement and citizen science events and activities; develop skills to manage dunes better, both now and in the future.
Dynamic Dunescapes (DuneLIFE) is funded by the National Lottery Heritage Fund and the EU LIFE Programme (LIFE17NATUK/000570-DuneLIFE)
Email:email@example.com for contact details of the team or to sign up for the email newsletter.
'Sands of LIFE is a major conservation project to revitalise sand dunes across Wales, that will run until December 2022. The project will recreate natural movement in the dunes and rejuvenate habitats, which will help secure a home to some of our rarest wildlife, safeguard our wider environment and enable people to enjoy these biodiversity hotspots. This major project, led by Natural Resources Wales (NRW), will restore over 2400 hectares of sand dunes across four Special Areas of Conservation, on 10 separate Welsh sites: Tywyn Aberffraw, Newborough Warren, Morfa Dinlle, Morfa Harlech, Morfa Dyffryn, Laugharne - Pendine Burrows, Whiteford Burrows, Pembrey Burrows, Kenfig and Merthyr Mawr.'
Furter information: naturalresources.wales/SandsofLIFE
Email: SoLIFE@cyfoethnaturiolcymru.gov.uk if you want to receive a newsletter
in Dutch : landschapsvormende-processen
Seminar of the LIFE projects REWETDUNE and WETHAB -2019-
REWETDUNE-LIFE – Restoration of Wetlands in Dune Habitats, LIFE13 NAT/DK/001357, 2015-2020.
LIFE WETHAB – Restoration of Wet Habitats in the Jerup Beach Ridge Plain, LIFE12 NAT/DK/000803, 2013-2019.
For more information, please have a look at:
Book on SAND MOTOR research-2019-
MANAGEMENT OF COASTAL DUNES AND SANDY BEACHES-2018-
DUNE ROADMAP - ACTIONPLAN-2018-
The action plan concerning knowledge exchange and networking during the period 2016-2020. The roadmap focus on the sustainable conservation and restoration of important habitats in dunes of the atlantic region. The roadmap will be reworked regularly.
Further information: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/natura2000/platform/documents/263/Roadmap_for_dunes_of_the_Atlantic_Region_v_Jan2017_en.pdf
STATE OF NATURE IN THE EU-2018-
This report shows clearly the dramatically bad state of the nature of european dunes. It is one reason, that we have to work for a much better quality of beaches and dunes. further information: State of nature in the EU.pdf
Publication: LIFE and coastal habitats-2017-
'This LIFE Nature publication highlights the issues threatening Europe’s coastal habitats and how the LIFE programme has addressed them. Download pdf: LIFE and coastal habitats
Alien Species in Dunes and Dune Slacks-since 2017-
Cotula arborescens subspec. gallica already seen in dunes ???
Do you have any suggestions ???
Natterjack Toads on the island of Sylt- 2016-
Natterjack Toads are threatened on the island of Sylt and their population declines. On the entire island management measure started, supporting in the short as well as in the long term the environmental conditions to maintain the Natterjack population.
Extensive information (in German)
Dynamic Dunes -2016-
CAROLINENSIEL, North Sea
Location: Friedrichsgroden 16, 26409 Carolinensiel
Landscape: North Sea, salt marshes
Facilities: 5 shared-rooms (4-5 persons), 2 double-rooms, kitchen self-catering, seminar room, 2 labs (dry and wet with sea water access) and standard lab equipment, separate room with microscopes/binoculars, yearlong available
Contact: Dr. Hans-Ulrich Steeger, steeger (at) uni-muenster.de, phone: +49-251-8323868, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Institut für Zoophysiologie, Hindenburgplatz 55, 48143 Münster
SPIEKEROOG, North Sea
Location: Hellerpad 2, 26474 Spiekeroog
Landscape: large dune areas with primary dunes, heathlands and dry grasslands without rabbits, more or less no wet slacks, salt marshes grazed and non-grazed
Facilities: 2 shared rooms (4-5 persons), 1 double room, kitchen self-catering, meeting room, lab, equipment particularly for mud and water studies, microscopes and binoculars
Contact: Homepage in German, thus contact them directly: forschung (at) wittbuelten.de
HELGOLAND, North Sea
Location: Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, 27483 Helgoland
Landscape: Northsea, cliff coast with impressing bird breeding area, marine algae and kelp, dune areas and dry grasslands
Facilities: 23 double rooms, 53 single rooms, kitchens for self-catering or catering via youth hostel, seminar room, lab, comprehensive lab equipment including seawater access, microscopes, phase contrast microscopes, binoculars, yearlong available
ZINGST, Baltic Sea
Location: Mühlenstraße 27, 18374 Ostseeheilbad Zingst
Landscape: Baltic Sea Coast, Inland Coast with salt marshes, meadows and reed beds of the Darß Zingster Bodden, bird protection areas Kirr and Werder islands, large dune areas of the Darßer Ort, old dune forests Darßer Wald.
Facilities: 3 shared rooms (a 5 persons), 2 single rooms, kitchen self-catering, seminar room, boat, 3 labs, water and plankton analysing equipment, microscopes, yearlong available
Contact: PD Dr. Rhena Schumann, rhena.schumann (at) uni-rostock.de, Universität Rostock/Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät/Institut für Biowissenschaften/Angewandte Ökologie & Phykologie
HIDDENSEE, Baltic Sea
Location: Biologenweg 15, 18565 Kloster / Hiddensee
Landscape: Baltic Sea Coast, Inland Coast Bodden, salt marshes, reed beds, dunes with dry grasslands and heathlands, cliff coast
Facilities: 14 double rooms, 3 single rooms, kitchen self-catering, seminar room, 1 lab, some soil and microclimate measuring instruments, microscopes and binoculars, yearlong available
Contact: PD Dr. Irmgard Blindow, blindi (AT) uni-greifswald.de, phone +49-38300-50251, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald
Ciccarelli, D., & Bona, C. (2021). Exploring the Functional Strategies Adopted by Coastal Plants Along an Ecological Gradient Using Morpho-functional Traits. Estuaries and Coasts, 1-16.
Gallego-Fernández, J. B., Martínez, M. L., García-Franco, J. G., & Zunzunegui, M. (2021). Multiple seed dispersal modes of an invasive plant species on coastal dunes. Biological Invasions, 23: 111-127.
Gudžinskas, Z., & Rasimavičius, M. (2021) VARIATION IN HIP AND SEPAL PARAMETERS OF INVASIVE ROSA RUGOSA BETWE-EN SITES AND YEARS. Botanica 27,1: 1-12.
Kooijman, A. M., Arens, S. M., Postema, A. E. L., van Dalen, B. R., & Cammeraat, L. H. (2021). Lime-rich and lime-poor coastal dunes: Natural blowout activity differs with sensitivity to high N deposition through differences in P availability to the vegetation. Science of The Total Environment, 779, 146461.
van Puijenbroek, M. E., van den Dool, R. T., Koppenaal, E. C., Smit, C., Berendse, F., Limpens, J., & Bakker, J. P. (2021). Green beach vegetation dynamics explained by embryo dune development. Basic and Applied Ecology.
Andriolo, U., Gonçalves, G., Bessa, F., & Sobral, P. (2020). Mapping marine litter on coastal dunes with unmanned aerial systems: A showcase on the Atlantic Coast. Science of The Total Environment, 139632 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139632
Arens, S. M., et al. 2020. Comment on ‘Is ‘re-mobilisation’nature restoration or nature destruction? A commentary’by I. Delgado-Fernandez, RGD Davidson-Arnott & PA Hesp. Journal of Coastal Conservation 24(2): 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-020-00731-1
Bazzichetto, M., Sperandii, M. G., Malavasi, M., Carranza, M. L., & Acosta, A. T. R. (2020). Disentangling the effect of coastal erosion and accretion on plant communities of Mediterranean dune ecosystems. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 106758.
Bertacchi, A. and Fagaras, M. 2020. Similarities and differences in dune habitats between Tuscan and Dobrogean coasts. Contributii Botanice 54: 133-148. LINK
Bossard, V., & Lerma, A. N. (2020). Geomorphologic characteristics and evolution of managed dunes on the South West Coast of France. Geomorphology, 367, 107312.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2020.107312
Decuyper, M., Van Den Dool, R., Slim, P. A., Kuiters, A. T., Jansen, J. M., & Sass-Klaassen, U. (2020). Population dynamics of Hippophae rhamnoides shrub in response of sea-level rise and insect outbreaks. PloS one, 15(5), e0233011.https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0233011
Del Vecchio S, Fantinato E, Roscini M, Acosta ATR, Bacchetta G, Buffa G. The germination niche of coastal dune species as related to their occurrence along a sea–inland gradient. J Veg Sci. 2020;00:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvs.12899
Díaz-Barradas, M. C., Gallego-Fernández, J. B., & Zunzunegui, M. (2020). Plant response to water stress of native and non-native Oenothera drummondii populations. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 154: 219-228.
Du, J., & Hesp, P. A. (2020). Salt Spray Distribution and Its Impact on Vegetation Zonation on Coastal Dunes: a Review. Estuaries and Coasts, 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12237-020-00820-2
Freitas, J. G. (2020). Making a Case for an Environmental History of Dunes. Anthropocenes – Human, Inhuman, Posthuman, 1(1): 5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.16997/ahip.4
Gallego-Fernández, J. B., Morales-Sánchez, J. A., Martínez, M. L., García-Franco, J. G., & Zunzunegui, M. (2020). Recovery of Beach-Foredune Vegetation after Disturbance by Storms. Journal of Coastal Research, 95(sp1), 34-38.
Garcia-Lozano, C.; Pintó, J.; Roig-Munar, F.X. (2020). Set of indices to assess dune development and dune restoration potential in beach-dune systems on Mediterranean developed coasts. Journal of Environmental Management, 259: 109754. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109754
Giulio, S, Acosta, ATR, Carboni, M, Campos, JA, Chytrý, M, Loidi, J, Pergl, J, Pyšek, P, Isermann, M, Janssen, JAM, Rodwell, JS, Schaminée, JHJ, Macenò, C 2020. Alien flora across European coastal dunes. Applied Vegetation Science. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12490
Hein, N., Merkelbach, J., Zech, K., & Weijers, S. (2020). Drought sensitivity of Empetrum nigrum shrub growth at the species’ southern lowland distribution range margin. Plant Ecology, 1-17.https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-020-01107-z
Ievinsh G, Andersone-Ozola U, Samsone I (2020) Demographics of an endangered coastal plant, Eryngium maritimum, near the northeast border of the distribution range in relation to clonal growth. Environmental and Experimental Biology 18: 117–127 http://doi.org/10.22364/eeb.18.11
Van der Hagen, H.G.J.M., Assendorp, D., Calame, W. et al.2020. Is livestock grazing a key factor for changing vegetation patterns in lime rich coastal dunes in the Netherlands?. J Coast Conserv. 24,15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-020-00733-z
Valcheva, M., Sopotlieva, D., & Apostolova, I. (2020). Current state and historical notes on sand dune flora of the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. Flora, 267.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2020.151594
Zunzunegui, M., Ruiz-Valdepeñas, E., Sert, M. A., Díaz-Barradas, M. C., & Gallego-Fernández, J. B. 2020. Field comparison of ecophysiological traits between an invader and a native species in a Mediterranean coastal dune. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 146: 278-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2019.11.032
Various coastal conferences you will find here: https://www.eucc-d.de/events-conferences.html
23.-26.08.2021 Online Research Summer Camp on the topic “Future Use and Protection of Coasts”, which takes place from 23 -26 August 2021 (3 hours a day) at the University of Rostock.
The Research Summer Camp is open to international Ph.D. students, Postdocs, and Master students who are planning a Ph.D. study. The schedule consists of plenary sessions, keynote speeches, and parallel-group work on three topics:
1. Restoration of coastal wetlands and rehabilitation of ecosystem functions
2. Green coastal protection - towards quantifying the benefits of vegetated foreshores and other nature-based solutions
3. Terrestrial-marine interactions across shallow coastlines - a hotspot of human errors that bridge time intelligently?
Each working group is led by one or two scientists of the University of Rostock. Depending on the outcome of discussions and group work, it is the objective of the Research Camp to write on a joint paper, identify knowledge gaps, work on a commonly available database, and maybe develop a prospective research project. The Research Camp has an interdisciplinary approach and aims at all those interested in coastal sciences in the broadest sense.
The Research Camp is free of charge. The application deadline is July 15, 2021. All applicants will be informed about selection results by August 8, 2021, at the latest. The number of participants is limited to 30 participants.
A detailed description of the topics and more information on the program and application requirements can be found in the attached interactive PDF file and at: https://www.uni-rostock.de/internationales/rostock-international-house/sommerschulen/rscr/research-summer-camp-2021/
The Summer Research Camp is also integrated into the European University for Smart Urban Coastal Sustainability (https://www.eu-conexus.eu/en/).
16.-18.09.2021: CoastGIS, Raseborg/Finland - ONLINE
Further info: https://www.novia.fi/coastgis2020/
16.-20.11.2021: Coastal Ecology Workshop, Friedrichstadt, Germany.
12.-16.09.2022: LITTORAL 2022, Lisbon
The coastal and marine Community is pleased to announce its 16th conference Littoral to be held on the 12-16 September 2022, hosted by nova School of Science and Technology of NOVA University Lisbon (FCT NOVA). Conference Special topic: Adapt our coast to a sustainable future.
EU Nature - Communicationplatform: Information and meetings mainly dealing particularly with Natura2000
Center for Coastal and Marine Studies (CCMS) coastal aspects along the Black Sea
Grains de Sable Newsletter Octobre 2020
Coastline observatories network in France: The Observatory of the coast with interactive maps allow to visualize the elements collected by all participating structures. Observatory of the Aquitaine coast, Observatory of the north of France, Observatory of Pays de la Loire
UK Sand Dune and Shingle Network: https://uk.linkedin.com/in/sand-dune-shingle-network-6366a246
National Trust: https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/coastline
East Grampian Coastal Partnership: The Aberdeen Institute for Coastal Science and Management (AICSM) works alongside the East Grampian Coastal Partnership (EGCP) in a range of coastal projects.Newsletter https://www.egcp.scot
Dynamic Dunescapes: Dynamic Dunescapes is a project to restore sand dunes across England and Wales for the benefit of wildlife, people and communities. https://dynamicdunescapes.co.uk/
SANDLIFE, LIFE-Project dealing with sand habitats in Sweden
ARCOSLIFE, LIFE-Projekt in Spain
International Geographical Union: Commission on Coastal Systems
Maike Isermann, mail: dunes-d (at) eucc-d.de